8 câu đố c++
Chơi trò chơi 8 câu đố nổi tiếng với các mức độ không giới hạn bao gồm các hình ảnh vui nhộn và thú vị. Xem cách bạn chống lại các trạng thái tốt nhất có thể được thực hiện bởi AI bằng thuật toán Astar. Điểm của bạn được tính bằng cách chia số lần di chuyển để giải pháp tốt nhất có thể, được tạo bởi AI, cho số lần di chuyển của bạn để bạn giải câu đố. chúc vui vẻ Show Dự án trò chơi này đã xuất hiện do hậu quả của một hướng dẫn mà tôi đã viết. "Giải quyết 8 vấn đề giải đố bằng cách sử dụng tìm kiếm sao A* trong C++" ( https. //faramira. com/solve-8-puheads-probols-USE-a-star -search-in-c /). Điều này cuối cùng đã được chuyển đến Unity để chứng minh việc tìm đường của Astar để giải quyết 8 vấn đề giải câu đố Trong giải pháp này, các nước đi liên tiếp có thể đưa chúng ta ra xa mục tiêu hơn là đưa chúng ta đến gần hơn. Việc tìm kiếm cây không gian trạng thái đi theo con đường ngoài cùng bên trái từ gốc bất kể trạng thái ban đầu. Một nút trả lời có thể không bao giờ được tìm thấy trong phương pháp này 2. BFS (Brute-Force) 3. Nhánh và Giới hạn Về cơ bản có ba loại nút liên quan đến Nhánh và Giới hạn Hàm chi phí. C(X) = g(X) + h(X) where g(X) = cost of reaching the current node from the root h(X) = cost of reaching an answer node from X. Hàm Chi phí lý tưởng cho Thuật toán 8 câu đố. c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state Một thuật toán có sẵn để lấy giá trị gần đúng của h(x) là một giá trị chưa biết Thuật toán hoàn chỉnh. /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } } Sơ đồ dưới đây cho thấy con đường mà thuật toán trên theo sau để đạt được cấu hình cuối cùng từ cấu hình ban đầu đã cho của 8-Puzzle. Lưu ý rằng chỉ các nút có giá trị nhỏ nhất của hàm chi phí mới được mở rộng. C++14c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state87 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state88 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state89 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state90 ________ 791 ________ 792 ________ 10 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state1
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state2 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state3 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state4 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state7 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }1
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }3 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }6
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }8 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }41
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6____243 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }46
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }48 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state871 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state872
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state873 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state875______25 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state877 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state883 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state890 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state892 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state894 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state895 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state892 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state899 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state900 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state904 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state905 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state907 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state909 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state911 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state913 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state914 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state916 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state918 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state921______7922 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state923
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state925 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state927
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state929 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state01____102 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state03 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state04
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state06 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state08
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state10 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state12
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state14 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state16
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state18 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state20 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state22
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state25 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state27 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state29 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state31
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state32 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state33 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state35 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state37 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state39 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state43 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state883 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state49 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state890 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state56 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state57 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state58 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state61 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state63 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state65 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state909 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state69 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state73 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state75 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state76 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state77 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state81 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state86 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state88
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state892 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state899 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state900 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state95 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state3 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state97 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }00 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }01 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }02 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }03 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }02 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }05 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }02 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }11 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state872
/* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }15 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }16 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }17 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state76 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }19 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state37 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state909 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state911 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state57 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state39 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }31 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6____233 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }35
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }37 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }39 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }41
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6____243 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }45
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }47 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }49 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }51 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }53 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }54 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }58 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }60
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }62 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }64 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }66
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }68 Có thể bạn quan tâmc(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }71 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }75 _______7891____277 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }86 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }91 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }96 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }400 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }402 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }404 ________ 2405 ________ 2406 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }405 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }408 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }405 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }410 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }412
/* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }414 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }416 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902
/* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }424 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }426 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }429 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }431 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }434 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }438 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }440 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }442 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state872
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6____2446 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }431 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }451 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }438 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }457 _______7886____2459 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state872
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }463 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6____2465 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }468
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }470
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }473 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 Java/* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }475 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state88 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state89 ________ 2478 ________ 2479 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }478 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }481
________ 2482 ________ 2483 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }484 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }489 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }490 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }482 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state4 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state49 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state7 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8705 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8708 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state922 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8711 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }3 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }41 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }8 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }46 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }43 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state871 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }48 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state873 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state76 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state875 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8736 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8741 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8743 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8748 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8750 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8752______78753 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state900 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8758 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8759 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state900 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state904 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8771 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8773 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state909 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state911 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8778 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state913 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state916 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8784 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8778 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8786 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8788 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state922 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8790 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8792 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state925 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state929 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8798 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state922 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8711 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8741 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8743 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8748 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8750 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8817 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state06 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8827 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8829 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8831 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8834 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state10 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8837 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state14 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state18 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8843 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8845 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state25 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state27 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8859 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8863 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state872 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8872 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8863 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state872 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state32 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state33 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state35 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8892 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8894 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8899 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8741 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8908 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8909 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8748 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8915 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8918 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8920 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8921 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state58 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state61 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8928 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state63 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state65 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state909 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state69 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8944 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8946 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8948 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8950 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state75 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state76 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8962 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55____78965 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8966 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8967 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8974 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8976 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8758 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8759 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state900 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state95 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }482 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state97 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8991 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8992 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8994 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8998 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9001 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9003 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }15 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }16 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }17 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state76 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }19 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8892 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state909 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9026 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state911 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8894 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state49 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9035 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9037______7922 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9039 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state922 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9041 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }37 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9046 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8966 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state900 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9052 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }43 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9057 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }47 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }49 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }51 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }53____79067 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 _______7891____79071____258 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9074 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9075 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 _______7891____268 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55____79081 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8967 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }77____275 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }84 _______7891____286 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8741 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9102 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9103 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9104 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9109 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9111 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9114 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }400 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9114 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }402 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9114 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9119 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9121 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9114 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9123 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8928 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9114 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }414 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9114 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9128 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 _______16____79139 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }486 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }487 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state76 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9144 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state49 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }429 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }431 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9154 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9161 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }490 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9164 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9167 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9169 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9164 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9175 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9177 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9103 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state872 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8928 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }446 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }431 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9190 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9161 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }490 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9164 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9167 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9177 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9169 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9164 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9175 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9103 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state872 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8928 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }463 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }465 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9226 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9228 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9161 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state84 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8928 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9233 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state902
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9237 Python3c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9238 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9239 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9240 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9241 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9242
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9243 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }478 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9245
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9246 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9247 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9248 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9249 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }478 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9251
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9252 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9253 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9254 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9255 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }490
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9258 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9259 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9261 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9266 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9270 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9271 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9261 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9266 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9270
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9283 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }482 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9285 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 _______16____79288 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9290 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9293 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9295 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9298 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state000
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state002 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state005 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state007 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state009 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state011
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state013 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state015 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state018 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9295 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state023 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state025
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state027 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state030 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9295 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state035 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state037 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state040 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state042 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8950 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state046
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state047 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }482 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state049 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9293 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state055 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state056 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state057 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state058 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state060 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state062 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state064 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state067 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state069
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state071 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state074 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state076
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state078 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state080 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state083 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state085
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state087 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state090 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state092
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state094 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state097 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state099
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state101 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6____1103 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state105 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state108 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state110 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9294 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state114
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state115 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state116 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state117 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state119 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9266 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state121 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }5 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8950 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state126______79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state131____1132 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state133 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state134 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state137 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state132 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state133 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state134 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state143 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state144 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state146 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state148 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state126____1151 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state126
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state159 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state161____79266 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state163 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state166 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state168 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state170
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state172 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state174 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state176 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9270 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state180______79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state176 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9270 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state186______79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state188 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9270 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state192____79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state188 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9270 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state198 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state200
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state202 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state092____79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state206
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state208 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state210 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9114 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state212 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state208
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state216 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state218 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state131____1132 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state133 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state134 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state137 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state132 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state133 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state134 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state233______7881 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state894 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state236 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state237 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8753 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9111 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 _______7886____1233____1244
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state245 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state246 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state248 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state252 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state144 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state144 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state258 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state144 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state262
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state263 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state265 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state269 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state272 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8950 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state278 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state280 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state233____1244
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state284 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state285 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state286 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9292 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state288 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state291 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state293 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state295 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state297
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state299 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state092____79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state303 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state269____79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state307 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state272 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state309 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state311____78742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9111
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state315 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state317
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6____1319 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6____1321 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state323 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state325 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state6 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }53 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state035 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state329
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state331 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state333 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state335 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state337____79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state339
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state341 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state344 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8950 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state351 _______7891____1353 _______7891____1355 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state24
_______7886____1359 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state886 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state880 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state131 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state132 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state133 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state881 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9103 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9295 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state369______79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9261 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state373____78742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9270 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state151 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state377 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state373____78860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9270 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state151 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state383 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state55 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state387 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state389 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state391 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state394 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state396______79256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state398 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state399 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state400 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state399 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state402 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state399 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state404 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state151 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state399 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state409
/* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state411 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }99 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state413
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state414
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state415 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state416 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state417 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state419 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9161 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }490 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state425 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9261______79167 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9169 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8742 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state425 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state891 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9261____79175 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9177 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9103 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state441
c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state442 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state416 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state444 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9256 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state419 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8860 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state9161 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state8861 /* Algorithm LCSearch uses c(x) to find an answer node * LCSearch uses Least() and Add() to maintain the list of live nodes * Least() finds a live node with least c(x), deletes it from the list and returns it * Add(x) adds x to the list of live nodes * Implement list of live nodes as a min-heap */ struct list_node { list_node *next; // Helps in tracing path when answer is found list_node *parent; float cost; } algorithm LCSearch(list_node *t) { // Search t for an answer node // Input: Root node of tree t // Output: Path from answer node to root if (*t is an answer node) { print(*t); return; } E = t; // E-node Initialize the list of live nodes to be empty; while (true) { for each child x of E { if x is an answer node { print the path from x to t; return; } Add (x); // Add x to list of live nodes; x->parent = E; // Pointer for path to root } if there are no more live nodes { print ("No answer node"); return; } // Find a live node with least estimated cost E = Least(); // The found node is deleted from the list of // live nodes } }490 c(x) = f(x) + h(x) where f(x) is the length of the path from root to x (the number of moves so far) and h(x) is the number of non-blank tiles not in their goal position (the number of mis- -placed tiles). There are at least h(x) moves to transform state x to a goal state425 |